Prescribe to Save Lives: An Intervention to Increase Naloxone Prescribing Among HIV Clinicians
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Prescribe to Save Lives: An Intervention to Increase Naloxone Prescribing Among HIV Clinicians
Published: September/October 2023
This 1-hour, journal article-based CME activity reviews an educational intervention aimed to increase HIV clinicians' naloxone prescribing. The intervention was designed to reduce overdose mortality among persons living with HIV, that being a major and increasing cause of preventable death among this population. The authors evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, and suggest avenues for further research in order to better understand and mitigate the barriers to naloxone prescribing among clinicians who treat patients with HIV.
The target audience for this intermediate activity includes physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and other clinicians, researchers and academics, residents, fellows, students and counselors and policymakers.
This activity addresses the following ACGME Competencies: Patient Care and Procedural Skills, Medical Knowledge, Practice-Based Learning and Improvement, Interpersonal and Communication Skills, Professionalism, and Systems Based Practice.
Objectives: Overdose is a major cause of preventable death among persons living with HIV. This study aimed to increase HIV clinicians' naloxone prescribing, which can reduce overdose mortality.
Methods: We enrolled 22 Ryan White-funded HIV practices and implemented onsite, peer-to-peer training, posttraining academic detailing, and pharmacy peer-to-peer contact around naloxone prescribing in a nonrandomized stepped wedge design. Human immunodeficiency virus clinicians completed surveys to assess attitudes toward prescribing naloxone at preintervention and 6 and 12 months postintervention. Aggregated electronic health record data measured the number of patients with HIV prescribed and the number of HIV clinicians prescribing naloxone by site over the study period. Models controlled for calendar time and clustering of repeated measures among individuals and sites.
Results: Of 122 clinicians, 119 (98%) completed a baseline survey, 111 (91%) a 6-month survey, and 93 (76%) a 12-month survey. The intervention was associated with increases in self-reported "high likelihood" to prescribe naloxone (odds ratio [OR], 4.1 [1.7-9.4]; P = 0.001). Of 22 sites, 18 (82%) provided usable electronic health record data that demonstrated a postintervention increase in the total number of clinicians who prescribed naloxone (incidence rate ratio, 2.9 [1.1-7.6]; P = 0.03) and no significant effects on sites having at least one clinician who prescribed naloxone (OR, 4.1 [0.7-23.8]; P = 0.11). The overall proportion of all HIV patients prescribed naloxone modestly increased from 0.97% to 1.6% (OR, 2.2 [0.7-6.8]; P = 0.16).
Conclusions: On-site, practice-based, peer-to-peer training with posttraining academic detailing was a modestly effective strategy to increase HIV clinicians' prescribing of naloxone.
Upon completion, learners will be able to:
- Evaluate the impact of the educational intervention described in the study on naloxone prescribing by clinicians who treat HIV patients at high risk for opioid overdose.
- Recognize system-level and clinician barriers to prescribing of naloxone to HIV patients at high risk for opioid overdose.
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Registration Deadline: 10/02/2026
User Access Closed Date: 11/02/2026
- Click on the Contents tab to begin this activity.
- Click View Journal Article and read the journal article in its entirety.
- Click Complete Post Test to answer multiple choice questions. Participants will have 10 attempts to pass and must answer 2 out of 3 questions correctly.
- Click Complete Evaluation to provide valuable activity feedback. Scroll down on all questions as there may be answer options that expand past the size of the window.
- Click the button Claim Medical Credits in the box titled Claim Credits & Certificate. Choose the type of credit and click submit. Click the button View/Print Certificate to save or print your certificate. You can view/print your certificate at any time by visiting the ASAM eLearning Center, clicking Dashboard, and clicking Transcript/Achievements.
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CME, CE, CEU and Other Credit Types
ACCME Accreditation Statement
The American Society of Addiction Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
AMA Credit Designation Statement
The American Society of Addiction Medicine designates this journal-based CME for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
National Board for Certified Counselors ACEP
The American Society of Addiction Medicine has been approved by NBCC as an Approved Continuing Education Provider, ACEP No. 7062. Programs that do not qualify for NBCC credit are clearly identified. The American Society of Addiction Medicine is solely responsible for all aspects of the programs.
California Association for Drug/Alcohol Educators (CAADE)
This educational program is approved by CAADE: #CP40 999 1225.
California Association of DUI Treatment Centers (CADTP)
This educational program is approved by CADTP: #205.
California Consortium of Addiction Programs and Professionals (CCAPP)
This educational program is approved by CCAPP: #OS-20-330-1224.
Continuing Education Credits (CEUs)
Non-physician participants will receive a certificate of attendance upon completion of the activity and an online evaluation confirming their participation. Participants should submit his/her certificate of attendance to their professional organization/institute.
Maintenance of Certification (MOC) or Continuing Certification Programs (CCP)
American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM)
The American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM) has approved this activity for a maximum of 1 credit towards ABPM MOC Part II requirements.
American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA)
This activity contributes to the CME component of the American Board of Anesthesiology’s redesigned Maintenance of Certification in Anesthesiology TM (MOCA®) program, known as MOCA 2.0®.
American Board of Pediatrics (ABP)
Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the activity, with individual assessments of the participant and feedback to the participant, enables the participant to earn a maximum of 1 MOC point in the American Board of Pediatrics’ (ABP) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. It is the CME activity provider’s responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABP MOC credit.
American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM)
Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 1 Medical Knowledge MOC point in the American Board of Internal Medicine’s (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider’s responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credits.
American Board of Surgery (ABS)
Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the learner to earn credit toward the CME and/or Self-Assessment requirements of the American Board of Surgery’s Continuous Certification program. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit learner completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABS credit.
American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN)
Successful completion of this CME activity can be used to satisfy the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology’s (ABPN) CME requirement for Maintenance of Certification program.
American Board of Addiction Medicine (ABAM)
Successful completion of this activity can be used to satisfy the American Board of Addiction Medicine (ABAM) Tmoc credit requirements.
Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC)
Royal College Fellows can use participation in Accredited Continuing Medical Education to earn Section 3 Credits.
In accordance with disclosure policies of ASAM and the ACCME, the effort is made to ensure balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all CME/CE activities. These policies include mitigating all possible relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies for the Planning Committees and Presenters. All activity Planning Committee members and Faculty have disclosed relevant financial relationship information.
The Journal of Addiction Medicine has reviewed these disclosures and determined that the relationships are not inappropriate in the context of their respective presentations and are not inconsistent with the educational goals and integrity of the activity.
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